Month: August 2019

Quantum existence testing gives extreme solutions to increase network speed

first_img Citation: Quantum existence testing gives extreme solutions to increase network speed (2007, March 22) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2007-03-quantum-extreme-solutions-network.html Sándor Imre, an engineer at the Budapest University of Technology, calls this new computing process “quantum existence testing,” which is a special case of quantum counting. The quantum existence testing algorithm searches unsorted databases to find extreme values, attesting to the intriguing powers of the quantum mechanical effects of parallel processing.Imre’s method combines elements from classical computing as well as the latest research in quantum computing. In today’s classical computers, a binary search algorithm searches for values in a structured database, although this method’s linear process can take long periods of time, especially with very large databases. “While classical registers contain only one number from a large set, quantum registers are able to handle the entire large set of numbers at the same time,” Imre explained to PhysOrg.com. “Quantum computing is much faster because any operation on a quantum register will perform a certain function evaluation on all the numbers stored in that register. Then, using quantum parallelism, one can compare many possible phase values to a reference value in a single step.”The first quantum searching algorithm, introduced in the mid-‘90s by Lov Grover, takes advantage of parallel processing to search much more quickly than with a classical algorithm. (The number of calculations in Grover’s algorithm is equal to the square root of the calculations in a classical algorithm.) Imre’s new quantum existence testing is a special case of Shor’s phase estimation algorithm applied on Grover’s circuit, as it searches not for specific values, but values with special characteristics.“Grover’s algorithm is able to find a copy of a reference element in an unsorted database; however it cannot deal with relations, i.e. greater, smaller, etc,” Imre explained. “Quantum existence testing decides whether any of the elements in the database is smaller (or larger) than a reference value. Classically, to make this decision efficiently, one has to sort the database in advance and keep this sorted status continuously. But by combining quantum existence testing with classical logarithmic searching, we can achieve efficient extreme value searching in an unsorted data base.” Finding extreme values is not only important for computer scientists searching large databases, but also for everyday applications. For example, global infocom networks use the shortest path (i.e. minimum) to transfer information. Likewise, mobile networks requiring optimal signal detection need to find the largest probability density (i.e. maximum) among 1030 (or a thousand billion billion billion) choices or more, Imre explained.“Many problems emerging in telecom systems can be regarded as searching in a virtual data base or function,” he said. “For example, to find an optimal route between two end-users located on different continents is nothing other than searching for the best solutions (an extreme value). Or detection in a 3G mobile terminal means that a received radio signal should be compared to all possible sent signals to decide which one has been really sent.”At its basic level, Imre’s quantum existence testing algorithm consists of a recursive five-step code. The process begins with splitting the searching region into two subregions, and then checking for higher/lower values in that region. Depending on the answer, the code repeats with either the lower or upper subregion.This algorithm, like the others, is probabilistic. In practical use, it would be programmed to run through a fixed number of steps, the number of which would scale with the error probability. The greatest advantage of the algorithm, as Imre explains, is that it decreases the computational complexity of the search. In other words, the algorithm requires fewer repetitions to produce the same results compared with other methods, translating to faster networks with stronger signals. “Compared to classical solutions, the improvement with quantum existence testing is about the square root of N in the case of a database N entry of length,” Imre explained. “For example, if you are able to classically find an extreme value in a database containing 1000 entries in 1 second, then the quantum alternative can handle 1000 such databases during the same time, or a database with 1 million entries.”The question that remains, however, is when quantum computers might be built. Imre noted that there are currently some promising manufacturers that predict quantum computers within a couple years.“It depends on many things,” he said. “There are many ways to build quantum computers theoretically. The question is how scalable is the given solution? I mean, to build a few-qbit computer is more or less easy, but a 1000-plus-qbit quantum PC proves to be a really hard job. However, there are some quantum-based communication solutions (for example, key distribution) that are already on the market.”Citation: Imre, Sándor. “Quantum Existence Testing and its Application for Finding Extreme Values in Unsorted Databases.” IEEE Transactions on Computers. To be published.Copyright 2007 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Using a novel quantum computing algorithm, scientists have simplified the process for finding extreme values in a database compared with classical and earlier quantum computing methods. With its reduced time and minimal error probability, this quantum process could significantly increase the speed of computing in global and mobile networks. The best of both worlds: How to solve real problems on modern quantum computers Explore furtherlast_img read more

Physicists Propose Method for Entangling Moving Material Particles

first_imgAs Gneiting and Hornberger explain, the Bell measurement is analogous to detecting the spin rotation of a particle. In this view, the early wave packet could correspond to spin up, and the late wave packet to spin down. “The interferometers reveal the entanglement between the two atoms by reuniting the early and the late wave packets on each side,” Hornberger explained. “The resulting interference influences at what direction the atoms exit the interferometers, which can be detected by simple position measurements. The latter can be easily understood from a classical point of view, which permits to compare the experiment with the classical expectation.”One challenge in performing an experiment of this motion entanglement will be to control unavoidable wave packet dispersion. If the early and late wave packets broaden too much, their distortion prevents accurate measurements. But if researchers can successfully perform the experiment, the results may provide insight into how accurately the macroscopic world can be described by local realism.“In general, violation of a Bell inequality demonstrates the incompatibility of a realistic and a local description of our physical world,” Gneiting said. “Establishing such a violation even in the motion of material particles and on everyday life scales makes it ever harder to come up with a plausible alternative theory based on hidden variables, even when dispensing with the combination of reality and locality.”More information: Gneiting, Clemens and Hornberger, Klaus. “Bell Test for the Free Motion of Material Particles.” Physical Review Letters 101 260503 (2008).Copyright 2008 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Explore further In a recent study, physicists Clemens Gneiting and Klaus Hornberger from the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich in Germany have proposed a scheme to take entanglement one step further: they explain how to entangle the motion of two macrosopically separated particles. Rather than resorting to entangling the internal states of the particles, the physicists suggest using a pulsed magnetic field to spatially separate the particles’ wave functions. Then, an interferometer can detect the correlation between each particle’s two separated wave packets, demonstrating what the scientists call “dissociation time entanglement” (DTE).As the physicists explain, entangling the motion of massive particles could have certain advantages compared with entangling their internal states. “In contrast to spin, motion – or rather position – has a direct classical analogue,” Gneiting told PhysOrg.com. “Describing the motion of a material particle is a key concept in classical physics. Demonstrating non-classical features in the motion of a material particle thus reveals best the incompatibility of our experienced world with a classical description.”Gneiting and Hornberger predict that, although their scheme faces technological challenges, experimentally realizing their method seems to be within reach of present-day technology. They have published their proposed method in a recent issue of Physical Review Letters.To realize the entanglement of moving material particles, the physicists proposed using a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), which is an ultra-cold state of matter that displays collective quantum properties even for a large number of particles. When made of lithium molecules, a BEC has the advantage of possessing a relatively long lifetime of 10 seconds, which would enable researchers to apply a macroscopic time separation of one second between pulses which split the molecules. By applying two field pulses at the BEC molecule, it’s possible to separate, or dissociate, the molecule into two atoms traveling in opposite directions from the source. Each counterpropagating atom has two wave packets corresponding to the two possible dissociation times: an early and a late wave packet. Then, simple position measurements behind interferometers reveal the correlations between the early and late wave packets of the two atoms. Their entanglement is verified if these correlations violate a Bell inequality. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Physicists Propose Method for Entangling Moving Material Particles (2009, January 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-01-physicists-method-entangling-material-particles.htmlcenter_img What are the parts of an atom? (PhysOrg.com) — When physicists experiment with quantum entanglement, they usually work with photons, the intangible particles of light. In the past few years, however, scientists have begun to broaden their experiments by entangling material particles. By seeing how far this quantum property extends into the classical realm, researchers can investigate the implications of entanglement in the macroscopic world, such as our intuitive assumptions of “realism” – that objects exist whether or not anyone observes them – and “locality” – that objects cannot communicate with each other faster than the speed of light. The proposed set-up for entangling the motion of material particles. A diatomic molecule is exposed to a sequence of two magnetic pulses, so that each of the two particles is characterized by an early and a late wave packet component resulting from two different dissociation times. A simple position measurement determines their correlation, which is called “dissociation time entanglement.” Image credit: Gneiting and Hornberger.last_img read more

Signs of dark matter may point to mirror matter candidate

first_img As it name implies, mirror matter is basically a spatial reflection of ordinary matter. Matter particles can be either left-handed or right-handed, so if an ordinary matter particle were left-handed, its mirror particle would be right-handed, but exactly identical in every other way. In the theory of mirror matter, every ordinary matter particle (e.g. protons, electrons, etc.) would have a mirror particle, thus doubling the number of particles in the universe. The inspiration for mirror matter came from an experiment performed in 1956 that showed that the laws of nature are not left-right symmetrical (also called parity-symmetrical, or p-symmetrical). Specifically, the experiment showed that particles in weak interactions display a preference for left-handedness, so that in a way, the Universe is left-handed. Since the other two forms of symmetry – rotational and translational – do seem to be symmetrical everywhere in nature, scientists wonder why nature doesn’t have p-symmetry as well. But if mirror matter exists, it would solve this problem by having slight right-handedness and restoring the Universe’s p-symmetry.At first, mirror matter may sound a bit like antimatter (which is ordinary matter with an opposite charge). In both theories, the number of known particles would double. However, while antimatter interacts very strongly with ordinary matter, annihilating itself into photons, mirror matter would interact very weakly with ordinary matter. For this reason, some physicists have speculated that mirror particles could be candidates for dark matter. Even though mirror matter would produce light, we would not see it, and it would be very difficult to detect.However, mirror matter would not be impossible to detect, and Foot thinks that the DAMA experiment and the CoGeNT experiment may have detected mirror matter. In DAMA, scientists observed a piece of sodium iodide, which should generate a photon when struck by a dark matter particle. Since the experiment is Earth-based, the scientists predicted that they would observe more photons during the time of year that the Earth is moving toward the dark matter background than away from it – and they did. The more recent CoGeNT experiment is similar, where scientists found evidence of dark matter collisions in a germanium crystal. Interestingly, both DAMA’s and CoGeNT’s results involve particles of a similar mass range.In Foot’s model, if ordinary and mirror particles interact with each other via a process called photon-mirror photon kinetic mixing, then mirror particles could explain both results. In Foot’s theory, a mirror particle plasma would be the predominant ingredient in galactic halos, where dark matter seems to be “hiding” based on observations of its gravity’s effects. While this proposal supports the possibility of mirror matter as dark matter, Foot added that experiments in the near future will further test this idea. Explore further © 2010 PhysOrg.com More information: Robert Foot. “A CoGeNT confirmation of the DAMA signal.” arXiv:1004.1424v1 [hep-ph]via: Technology Review (PhysOrg.com) — Dark matter, which contains the “missing mass” that’s needed to explain why galaxies stay together, could take any number of forms. The main possible candidates include MACHOS and WIMPS, but there is no shortage of proposals. Rather, the biggest challenge is finding some evidence that would support one or more of these candidates. Currently, more than 30 experiments are underway trying to detect a sign of dark matter. So far, only two experiments claim to have found signals, with the most recent observations coming just a month ago. Now, physicist Robert Foot from the University of Melbourne has shown that the results of these two experiments can be simultaneously explained by an intriguing dark matter candidate called mirror matter.center_img Exploring the secrets of dark matter Citation: Signs of dark matter may point to mirror matter candidate (2010, April 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-04-dark-mirror-candidate.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

New world record set for longest duration echo in a manmade structure

first_img More information: via Independent © 2014 Phys.org (Phys.org) —The record for the longest duration echo in a man-made structure has been decimated by a single shot from a blank loaded pistol—an amazing 112 seconds. It happened inside an oil storage tank buried in the hard rock of a hillside in the Scottish Highlands. The previous record was a paltry 15 second reverberation in Hamilton Mausoleum in Lanarkshire. Citation: New world record set for longest duration echo in a man-made structure (2014, January 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-01-world-longest-duration-echo-man-made.html Dinged by Katrina, Endeavour fuel tank has scars The oil storage tank was one of six buried in the Highlands (at Ross Shire) just prior to Britain’s engagement in WWII—they are connected via tunnels and were intended as a storage depot for fuel for warships stationed at nearby Invergordon. The hope was that if Britain entered the war, fuel for the warships would be protected from long range German bombers.The echo test was conducted by Allan Kilpatrick, an expert on the history of Inchindown (the official name of the oil storage tank facility) and Professor of Acoustic Engineering Trevor Cox. Kilpatrick fired the pistol about a third of the way into the huge tank, while Cox did the timing from a third of the way from its end. The result was a noise that bounced around inside the tank for close to two minutes before dying out. The long echo has been recognized by the Guinness Book of World Records as the longest ever inside a man-made structure.The fuel tank is clearly very large, able to hold over 25 million liters of fuel—it’s long too, about twice that of a soccer field. But it’s mostly likely the walls that most contribute to the amazingly long echoes—they’re 45 centimeters thick.In speaking with the media, Cox suggested that the unusual acoustics in the tank might possibly lend themselves to musical compositions. His simple experiments yelling while inside the tank suggested that because the reverberations lasted so long, a person could actually harmonize with themselves if they so desired.Inchindown has not been used as a fuel storage facility for several years—its last known actual use was during the Falklands War in 1982. Today, the site is shuttered and the only people allowed inside are those on scheduled tours. Hamilton Mausoleum. Credit: Wikipedia Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Creating materials in a novel way by 3D printing bacteria

first_imgCredit: ACS © 2017 Phys.org Explore further (Phys.org)—A team of researchers at Delft University of Technology has developed a means for 3-D printing a gel containing bacteria onto a base to create materials in a novel way. In their paper published in the journal ACS Synthetic Biology, the team describes their technique and how they used it to simulate a process for creating small graphene samples. Journal information: ACS Synthetic Biology Bacteria has been used for a long time to create chemicals such as antibiotics, and more recently, bacteria have been found to reduce graphene oxide to graphene—the super-material that has so many scientists excited about its potential. In this new effort, the researchers have found a way to use an ordinary 3-D printer to print bacteria containing material onto a base, which allows it to be used in unique ways.To 3-D print bacteria, the researchers modified an off-the-shelf 3-D printer, removing its heating element (most 3-D printers work by melting the ink which hardens quickly after being ejected from a nozzle). They mixed bacteria with a gel and used it as their ink, which they printed onto an object where it solidified due to interactions with a material on its surface.To test their technique, the team used E. coli and a gel made from algae as an ink. The ink was printed onto a dish partly covered with calcium ions, which caused the gel to solidify without killing the bacteria. The experiment suggested that it should be possible to use the gel to place graphene-reducing, 1 millimeter-wide lines of Shewanella oneidensis bacteria in a solid form onto a surface containing graphene oxide, thus creating tiny pathways of graphene. S. oneidensis had previously been found to reduce graphene oxide to graphene—a way to make graphene without using chemicals.The researchers believe their printing technique could have other applications as well, including creating mother-of-pearl teeth, making plaque that causes tooth decay for research purposes, building materials using moon dust, or creating micro-lenses used in cameras or solar panels by emulating some animals that can make bioglass. They note also that because it can be done using inexpensive equipment, it opens the door to a huge number of science, technology and industrial applications.center_img Citation: Creating materials in a novel way by 3-D printing bacteria (2017, March 24) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-03-materials-d-bacteria.html Graphene: A new tool for fighting cavities and gum disease? More information: Benjamin A. E. Lehner et al. A Straightforward Approach for 3D Bacterial Printing, ACS Synthetic Biology (2017). DOI: 10.1021/acssynbio.6b00395AbstractSustainable and personally tailored materials production is an emerging challenge to society. Living organisms can produce and pattern an extraordinarily wide range of different molecules in a sustainable way. These natural systems offer an abundant source of inspiration for the development of new environmentally friendly materials production techniques. In this paper, we describe the first steps toward the 3-dimensional printing of bacterial cultures for materials production and patterning. This methodology combines the capability of bacteria to form new materials with the reproducibility and tailored approach of 3D printing systems. For this purpose, a commercial 3D printer was modified for bacterial systems, and new alginate-based bioink chemistry was developed. Printing temperature, printhead speed, and bioink extrusion rate were all adapted and customized to maximize bacterial health and spatial resolution of printed structures. Our combination of 3D printing technology with biological systems enables a sustainable approach for the production of numerous new materials. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Bridging the gap

first_imgInitially, Pyne painted with water colors and sketches of misty mornings and wayside temples, variously influenced as he was by Walt Disney and the art of Abanindranath Tagore. He counts Hals Rembrandt and Paul Klee as the other influences.Pyne’s ‘signature’ style is shaped by his own experiences of solitude and alienation that he had lived through and aided by the pain and horror he had witnessed in the city of Kolkata during the 1960’s. Equally devoted to cinema as he is to painting, Pyne has also drawn inspiration from movies made by Fellini and Ingmar Bergman. Today, he is known as the foremost exponents of the Bengal School of art. Pyne passed away in 2013. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Sanchit Art represents the best of contemporary Indian art and it also aims to bridge the gap between artists working in India and abroad by establishing a platform to show contemporary European art in India while reciprocating the same with curated shows of contemporary Indian art abroad. The gallery has partnered Inves Art Gallery of Spain to show Picasso and Braque, among others, at the India Art Fair.  Ganesh Pyne, Jayasri Burman, K. Laxma Goud, Paresh Maity, Ram Kumar and Sakti Burman, Sanjay Bhattacharya, Satish Gujral, and Thota Vaikuntam are some of the artists to be represented this year.When: 30 JanuaryWhere: NSIC Exhibition Groundslast_img read more

Bring back the sparrows

first_imgIt may be recalled that the first world sparrow day was celebrated in 2010 in various parts of the world. The basic idea of celebrating this day is to raise awareness not only of house sparrow but other common birds in the urban environment. In Delhi people are observing house sparrows which used to be a common sight early in the morning in each house hold, in verandahs and house garden. However, for the last few years, they have moved out because of destruction of their habitat in and around our houses, construction of towers. In order to save them, Delhi Govt. has declared sparrow as state bird of Delhi. As a birder, nature conservationist, I feel that we may take all measures so those sparrows again come back to urban environment. Further, we have to ensure that the birds such as red-vented,bulbul, myna, carow, woodpecker, pigeon, owl, parakeets,  koyal, hoopoe, kingfisher, peafowl do get protection, in some way or other, they have been associated to humankind from time immemorial. By saving the birds around us, means ‘we are saving the nature’.last_img read more

Halle Berry enjoying singledom

first_imgActor Halle Berry, who split from her husband Olivier Martinez two months ago, is reportedly enjoying being single and is focussed on being a mother.“She hasn’t gotten into another relationship since her breakup but she has been talking to a few people very lightly and going out when she has time. She enjoys being single and doing her own thing,” a source told eonline.com. Berry always puts her children first.“She loves being a mother and watching her daughter and son grow up. She has a very close relationship with them and that’s always been her main priority,” the source said.Berry is focusing on being a mother right now, while also maintaining a very transparent and honest relationship with them about what’s been going on. The Catwoman actor has two children.last_img read more

29yrold heart transplant patient shows signs of improvement

first_imgKolkata: The 29-year-old woman from Howrah, who undergone a heart transplant at a private hospital off EM Bypass on Monday evening, has shown a sign of improvement.She has been taken out of ventilation support. According to hospital sources, the patient has spoken to her family members at the hospital on Tuesday.The hospital sources said the patient has been kept under close monitoring.Rakhi Mondal (29), a resident of Howrah, was admitted to the hospital on late Sunday night. She had heart related ailments. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeSourav Pratik (19), a resident of Nalanda in Bihar was declared brain dead at Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital at Patna. The family members of the victim agreed to donate his heart.The heart was brought to Calcutta airport at around 5.15 pm on Monday. A Green Corridor was set up jointly by Kolkata and Bidhannagar Police and they ensured that the heart reached the hospital within 24 minutes covering around a distance of 23 km.According to hospital sources, the patient may be released from the hospital with the next few days if her health condition continues to improve. The patient also told her family members that she wanted to go home as early as possible. It may be mentioned that another heart transplant was conducted by another private hospital in the city on late Sunday night on Samirtan Dutta (52), a resident of Salt Lake. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedThe heart had been retrieved from a 24-year-old youth who was declared brain dead at a private hospital in Andhra Pradesh after meeting with a road accident.The heart was brought to the airport and later transported to a private hospital on EM Bypass through a Green Corridor as well.Two separate incidents of heart transplants occurred due to the state government’s continuous efforts to promote organ transplants in the state.This has once again brought fruitful result. The incidents of organ donation have increased in the state due to proactive efforts by the state Health department.last_img read more

Now measure lung function over phone call

first_imgIndian-origin researchers have developed a new health sensing tool that can accurately measure lung function over a simple phone call made with any phone — not just smartphone but also bar phones from anywhere in the world.The findings could be of special help for people in the developing world — who have asthma, cystic fibrosis or other chronic lung diseases — to know how well their lungs are functioning without visiting a doctor or a clinic, which in some places can take days of travel. “We wanted to be able to measure lung function on any type of phone you might encounter around the world — smartphones, bar phones, landlines, pay phones,” said Shwetak Patel, professor at the University of Washington.  Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The new tool is called SpiroCall. “With SpiroCall, you can call a 1-800 number, blow into the phone and use the telephone network to test your lung function,” Patel said. The patients take a deep breath in and exhale as hard and fast as they can until they can’t exhale any more. The phone’s microphone senses sound and pressure from that exhalation and sends the data to a central server, which uses machine learning algorithms to convert the data into standard measurements of lung function. “People have to manage chronic lung diseases for their entire lives,” said lead author Mayank Goel, computer science and engineering doctoral student at University of Washington.  Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix“So there’s a real need to have a device that allows patients to accurately monitor their condition at home without having to constantly visit a medical clinic, which in some places requires hours or days of travel,” added Goel. SpiroCall is an advancement over SpiroSmart which the researchers introduced in 2012 to let people monitor their lung function by blowing into their smartphones.Over the last four years, the team has collected data from more than 4,000 patients who have visited clinics in Seattle and Tacoma as well as in India and Bangladesh, where clinicians have measured lung function using both SpiroSmart and a commercial spirometer. In surveying patients from India and Bangladesh, though, the team realised that a significant percentage did not own smartphones and would be unable to use SpiroSmart in their own homes — which was a key goal of the project. The team realised that the only sensor they were using was a microphone, which all phones have.last_img read more